Sunday, January 3, 2016

Darning by Knitting



I changed the name of my blog, because I think it better reflects where I have been going these past few years: from almost exclusively quilting to all sorts of fiber fun.  I still quilt, but knitting, spinning and weaving take bigger chunks of my creative time.  I still climb, but much more modestly, and so I felt Quilting Climber was inaccurate and maybe pretentious.  I hoped to blog more because of the name change, but I obviously haven’t been.  However, this topic came up in a forum on Ravelry and rather than clutter up a thread, I thought I’d post this technique here.

This isn’t necessarily new but certainly doesn’t show up in any of my resources.  I first started doing this, because a young friend of mine ripped the heck out of a sweater.  He guides hunting trips in Montana, when he isn’t a backcountry wilderness ranger.  He got jumped by a grizzly while gutting an elk and ripped one of his sweater sleeves in several places during his hasty exit through the brush.  It’s a his favorite sweater and after some thinking, I decided it would be best to flat out knit the patches and graft them into the knitting as I went.  The results were excellent and I have used it on some other items, including socks with good results.  It’s fast, easy and I think better than anything else I have tried.

Before I explain this technique, I want to share my thoughts on darning socks.  Socks tend to get holes where you also tend to get blisters. The rubbing action that wears out socks also is hard on your skin.  A patch will only aggravate that area, possibly causing worse blisters.  And there’s nothing so miserable than having to work all day (I was a field forester) or hike out of the backcountry with blistered feet.  I relegate mended socks to knocking around town or to in the house status where I am not likely to walk enough to get blisters.  In the field, I wear good, perfect socks to protect my feet.

Here are the steps to a knitted patch:
You will need:

  • At least 2 dp’s – preferably slightly smaller than what was used to create the item.  This makes picking up the stitches easier and the patch denser and durable.
  • Yarn identical to the item, or of a thickness equal or possibly thinner than the item.  You don’t want the patch to be too bulky.  I try to save a small ball of all items I have knitted for this purpose.  Not that I can find it when needed…  You might add a strand of wooley nylon or the like if this is a high wear area.
  • A tapestry needle for grafting and weaving in the ends.
 The procedure:
  • About 2 rows below the lowest extent of the hole, pick up the right hand leg of each knit stitch, starting 2 columns left and ending 2 columns right of the hole’s width.
Picking up initial stitches.
  •  Knit that needle and turn the work, and knit back, using the stitches that match the item.
  • Pick up a stitch in the column above with your right needle.  Knit the first stitch from the left needle and pass the picked up stitch over it.  Finish that row.  And turn your work.
  • Repeat the step above each way until the knitted patch extends two rows above the highest point of the hole.  End with a RIGHT SIDE row.
  • Cut the yarn, leaving a tail 3 times the work width plus a bit.
  • With the free DP, pick up the stitches 2 rows above the hole and of equal number as in the patch.
  • Holding this needle in front and the patch behind, graft the patch to the picked up stitches.
Getting ready to graft.  See that the edges barely show the passed over picked up stitch.
  •  Bring the starting and ending yarn ends to the wrong side and weave in.
Finished patch.  The orange is a patch done by Swiss darning and it looks awful.

The cool part, besides looking nice, is that you can maintain the stitch pattern or even the stranding pattern in the patch as should have been in the item there, creating a very seamless repair.




Monday, March 2, 2015

Measuring Yarn Thickness



I often check my wpi during spinning because I want to end up with a specific yarn thickness – usually fingering or sport weight, occasionally DK or worsted weight.  The rule of thumb is ½ the wpi of your singles will be the wpi of a 3 ply; for 2 ply it’s 2/3.  I developed a card that shows the various wpi diameters as solid black lines and I hold my singles up to that along with a sample I have made. I also let a fresh singles self ply and check that thickness.  This approach seems to work fairly well.   I have learned to spin a bit finer than what I want, because of the way wool blooms after washing.  If my goal is 16 wpi, then I aim for 18.
After washing and drying the final skein, I want to see if I met my goal before I start swatching.  I have used the dowel method and the ruler method but each has problems.  It’s hard to do with a skein and on a wound ball, you can really only sample the 2 ends.  My spinning isn’t quite that consistent.  The visual comparison method on a skein works okay and you can sample several strands from across it.  But today I hit on something you could do on a skein that samples more strands and gives a more representative value.
Take 6 to 8 strands (or whatever seems appropriate) from across the skein – something that looks like at least ½ inch.  Lay them over your index forefinger, pushing the strands together to they touch but aren’t crammed.  Try not to stretch the strands. Measure how wide they are with a ruler.  The number of strands divided by their width gives you the yarn thickness – wpi if you measure in inches, wpc if in centimeters.  The strands can come from across the skein and if you do this with several sets and average, I think you end up with a far better idea of how thick your yarn really is.
In the picture below, there are 8 strands that measure 1/2 inch –> 8/.5 = 16 wpi.  The angle in the picture is funny because I was trying to hold everything in place with one hand and take the picture with the other. 


Thursday, December 4, 2014

Spinning DIY: Bobbin Winder



After you spin your singles, they are usually plied into the final yarn.  Many advise putting about 10 feet between the kate your bobbins are sitting on and your spindle or wheel so that the twist in the singles can even out and create a more consistent yarn.  My studio isn’t arranged to be able to do that.  You can’t do that if you are ball plying.
However, I read several blogs that showed you could achieve the same thing if you transferred the singles from your bobbin to a spool and then plied from the spools.  That’s what I do.  I use the spools that weavers load into shuttle boats.   Especially on large projects, it's recommended that you spin all your singles and then mix up those singles so that the yarn is more consistent across the whole project. At 20$ per ten 6 inch spools, spools are much cheaper than using $35 bobbins!

My wheel is a Schacht Matchless, which can be rigged 3 ways, but I prefer Scotch tension.  I rigged my brake with a hook, so I merely unhook it and the bobbin spins freely.  I transfer the singles from bobbin to spool directly from the wheel.  It takes less than 5 minutes, then I rehook my brake and I am ready to go for the next singles.  I prefer to have each singles on its own spool and find for a two ply, 40 grams of fiber per spool will fill a bobbin after plying.  If I am doing a three ply, then I usually spin 25 to 30 grams per spool.  I find that if there are any issues with the singles, I can deal with them during spool winding and not during plying.  I think my yarns look and perform much better since I started transferring them to spools before plying.

When I looked for a bobbin winder, I was surprised how expensive they are – and they are manual to boot.  BUT with a variable speed drill and a dowel, you can make one for under 20$.  

What you need:
1) A variable speed, reversible drill with power cord.  There was consensus that a rechargeable doesn’t have the oomph and longevity to wind a whole spool.  I got mine at Harbor Freight for 18$. Since so many of my DIY projects require a drill, I can use this drill for those projects as well.  If you already own such a drill, then this project is going to cost you less than 5$! 
2) A 9 inch length of 3/8 inch dowel rod.  This is for a 6 inch spool, which fits in most kates.
3) A 2 inch length of metal tubing that fits over one end of the dowel rod.  An old ball point pen casing might work.  I used part of the screw on lid from a broken thermometer.  A hack saw will needed to cut this to length.
4) Epoxy.

How to make:
1) Sand one end of the dowel rod to a very slight taper so that your spool will slide on, but only until about ¼ to ½ inch of the dowel end sticks out.
2) Epoxy the tubing to the other end of the dowel.  Since dowel wood is soft, this protects it from the clamps in the drill.

Tapered dowel with epoxied metal end
How to use:
1) Make sure the bobbin can spin freely.  Depending on the kind of wheel you have or if you are using a spindle, you may need to mount it in a kate to do this.
2) Set the drill speed to the slowest setting.
3) Put the dowel into the drill and screw it in snugly.  Slide the bobbin over the dowel far enough to be snug.

4) Manually wrap about 1 foot of the singles onto the spindle.  Stand about 6 to 10 feet away and make sure that the singles runs perpendicularly off the bobbin and perpendicularly onto the spool.  Otherwise you will change the twist in your singles.
5) Hold the drill in one hand and start it slowly.  Use your other hand to guide the singles back and forth along the spool so that it is loading smoothly and evenly under slight tension.  Keep an eye on the bobbin to make sure it is spinning smoothly and to anticipate when it is empty.  




6)  When the spool ends look full, concentrate the singles around the middle so it looks football shaped.


Tuesday, December 2, 2014

Spinning DIY: Blending Board



Just over a year ago I started spinning.  I did the usual: first worked exclusively with spindles, but then tried a wheel after 6 months and added that to the mix.  Along the way I bought as well as made the accessories that are in part needed and in part add to the fun.  What I love is that you can make most of your gear to start with and then add to that as you want.  I love making stuff, so much of what I have made I intend to continue using.  I want to explain how I made some of my equipment, but as someone wanted to know how I made my blending board, I'll start there.

I am attracted to quilting because I love patterns and color.  I love color in knitting and find that color plays a major role in creating yarns.  There are many ways to get color: from the natural colors in sheep to dying yarns to buying colored fleece to dying fleece yourself.  

I dye fleece by “painting” it with acid dyes and then heating it in the microwave (4 cycles of 3 minutes on, 3 minutes rest).  I can spin it as is, but I don’t care for how flat the yarn looks.  I prefer fleece that has color variations in it, much like your hair does.  That’s where blending comes in.  You add other colors, including undyed fibers to create something that will have depth to it.  You can create color gradations, heathers, whatever.  You can also add other fibers to improve the characteristics of the yarn as well as to add some bling.

The drum carder is the most efficient way to blend a large consistent batch of fleece.   

5 blended batts that started as 3 dyed pieces.
However, if you want to create stripes and add in bits and pieces of glitz or spots of color in a controlled fashion, then a blending board is most efficient.  They are very expensive to buy retail (120 – 200$) but while still not cheap, they are cost effective and easy to make. Most of the retail ones have a keel so you can blend while sitting.  I know I would not want to do that so mine is designed to sit on a table.  I find being able to stand back a bit helps in designing the batt. 

What you need:
1) 12 inch piece of 12 inch wide blending cloth.  NOT carding cloth – those tines are shorter and bent differently.  Blending cloth is specifically made to use on blending boards.  Cost range seems to be 60 – 80$.
2) A board that is at least 13 by 16 inches.  I used ½ inch plywood that I already had.  I don’t have a table saw, but I was able to get someone at a local school wood shop to cut it for me. Some people buy  kitchen cutting boards.  The board needs to be at least 4 inches longer than your cloth and an inch wider.  The piece I used was 13.5 by 17 inches.
3) Piece of molding as long as the shorter board dimension.  1”by 2” or smaller.  This is so the board will rest on the table at an angle.  I had some leftover from a bathroom remodel.
4) Glue: I used Gorilla Glue.  This is to glue on the molding and the cloth.
5) A bunch of small flat head screws to screw the blending cloth down after you’ve glued it as well as the molding piece. 
6) Silicon pads to keep the board from slipping during use.
7) 1 dowel rod 3/8 inch in diameter.  They come in 3 foot lengths. Cut this into two 15 to 16” lengths.  Sand and varnish them.  The smoother they are, the better you'll be able to slide them out of the rolag.

Construction Process:
1) About 5 inches from the end of the board lengthwise, glue and then screw down the molding.  This is the back of the board and the edge closest to the molding is the top of the board.

Back with molding and silicon feet attached
 2) Remove 2 or 3 rows of tines from the top and bottom of the cloth, so you have space for your screws.  The sides are already indented enough.  I was able to just use my fingers, but tweezers or needle nosed pliers work well.
3) Position the cloth onto the front of the board.  You want 2 inches extra length each end of the cloth and the sides of the cloth evenly centered. I opted for more room at the top than the bottom. Mark this. 
4) Apply glue to the board, especially along the edges and criss-crossed in the middle. Carefully place the cloth onto the board according to your markings.  Make sure that the tines point towards the top!  Place a large board on the tines and then place a bit of weight on it – enough to ensure good glue contact without damaging the tines.
5) After the glue has dried, drill and then screw the cloth along all four edges.  Screws should be about 2 to 2.5 inches apart.
Cloth glued and screwed....

6) Apply the silicon pads along the bottom edge back of the board and along the molding strip.
At this point the board is completed.  However, I decided to make an integrated cover to protect the board (and me).  I happened to have a large piece of upholstery leather that I screwed to the top edge of the board. I sewed a piece of elastic to the bottom that keeps it in place.  When I am using the board, I just roll/fold this back.  Canvas instead of leather would do a good job, too.

Cover showing how I attached the elastic band to the wrong side bottom.

Needed Accessories:

Along with the board you also need at least:

1) The above mentioned sanded and varnished dowel rods
2) A heavy duty utility brush is the best thing I have found to brush the fiber into the cloth as well as to clean the board.
3) A flicker – I like the dog slicker I bought better than a regular carding flicker.  The tines are softer.  This helps further straighten fibers and aids in removing the blended fiber during rolag construction.

I got mine at Pet Smart.  They are called Slickers.  About 10$

How to use:  (There are several very good videos showing blending board use on YouTube)

1) Mount fleece by stroking it onto the cloth from top to bottom.  Thin layers are better.  If mounting stripes of color, make sure there is overlap so there are no holes in the batt.  (The fleece I am using here is residue I pulled off of combs from another project.)


2) Brush this into the cloth using the floor brush and/or flicker.  Add more layers, embellishments, etc.  You can layer fibers side to side or on a diagonal.  If you are making several batts and you want consistency, then sketch out what you are doing and make notes – how much fiber, how wide of a stripe, etc.


3) When the board is fully loaded (up to an ounce seems to work fine), then brush up a beard of fiber along the bottom of the board.  Lay one dowel across this, pull out a little and then roll a half turn.  Lay the second dowel on top and continue pulling and attenuating the batt and then rolling.  Try, however, not to roll too tightly. If the fiber isn’t coming up, nudge it with the flicker. You can detach the rolag at any time or roll up the whole board.  If you make multiple rolags, then your striping will occur more frequently during spinning.  Otherwise, you’ll have a very long repeat.  You also can remove the fiber by rolling across the board diagonally!  (I haven’t tried that yet, just saw it demoed)


4) You can predraft the rolag, if desired.

Here’s a ball of yarn I made from 2 board’s worth of fiber. I pulled 3 rolags off each time. It weighs 35 grams, 85 meters at 14 wpi.  It’s chained plied.